**The Vedic Mathematics Sutras**

This list of sutras is taken from the book Vedic Mathematics, which includes a full list of the sixteen Sutras in Sanskrit, but in some cases a translation of the Sanskrit is not given in the text and comes from elsewhere. The Sutras describe mental processes as explained in the paper no. 57 here: "Structures in the Vedic Mathematics Sutras". These mental processes construct the mathematics.

The formula 'On the Flag' is not in the list given in Vedic Mathematics, but is referred to in the text.**The Sixteen Sutras**

Sutra | Translation | |

1 | By one more than the one before | |

2 | All from 9 and the last from 10 | |

3 | Vertically and Crosswise | |

4 | Transpose and Apply | |

5 | If the Samuccaya is the Same it is Zero | |

6 | If One is in Ratio the Other is Zero | |

7 | By Addition and by Subtraction | |

8 | By the Completion or Non-Completion | |

9 | Differential Calculus | |

10 | By the Deficiency | |

11 | Specific and General | |

12 | The Remainders by the Last Digit | |

13 | The Ultimate and Twice the Penultimate | |

14 | By One Less than the One Before | |

15 | The Product of the Sum | |

16 | All the Multipliers |

Note: The current Shankaracharya of Puri, Jagadguru Swami Nishchalananda Saraswati, has said (in 2008) he will be able to locate all the above sutras in the Vedic texts, but has so far only found one.

See also the article "The Sutras of Vedic Mathematics", by Kenneth Williams, published in the Journal of the Oriental Institute.**The Sub Sutras**

Sub Sutra | Translation | |

1 | Proportionately | |

2 | The Remainder Remains Constant | |

3 | The First by the First and the Last by the Last | |

4 | For 7 the Multiplicand is 143 | |

5 | By Osculation | |

6 | Lessen by the Deficiency | |

7 | Whatever the Deficiency lessen by that amount and set up the Square of the Deficiency | |

8 | Last Totalling 10 | |

9 | Only the Last Terms | |

10 | The Sum of the Products | |

11 | By Alternate Elimination and Retention | |

12 | By Mere Observation | |

13 | The Product of the Sum is the Sum of the Products | |

14 | On the Flag |